# Latex Appendix Bibliography Order

The main point of writing a text is to convey ideas, information, or knowledge to the reader. The reader will understand the text better if these ideas are well-structured, and will see and feel this structure much better if the typographical form reflects the logical and semantic structure of the content.

LaTeX is different from other typesetting systems in that you just have to tell it the logical and semantical structure of a text. It then derives the typographical form of the text according to the “rules” given in the document class file and in various style files. LaTeX allows users to structure their documents with a variety of hierarchical constructs, including chapters, sections, subsections and paragraphs.

## Global structure

When LaTeX processes an input file, it expects it to follow a certain structure. Thus every input file must contain the commands

 \documentclass{...}\begin{document} ... \end{document}

The area between and is called the preamble. It normally contains commands that affect the entire document.

After the preamble, the text of your document is enclosed between two commands which identify the beginning and end of the actual document:

 \begin{document} ... \end{document}

You would put your text where the dots are. The reason for marking off the beginning of your text is that LaTeX allows you to insert extra setup specifications before it (where the blank line is in the example above: we'll be using this soon). The reason for marking off the end of your text is to provide a place for LaTeX to be programmed to do extra stuff automatically at the end of the document, like making an index.

A useful side-effect of marking the end of the document text is that you can store comments or temporary text underneath the in the knowledge that LaTeX will never try to typeset them:

## Preamble

### Document classes

When processing an input file, LaTeX needs to know which layout standard to use. Layouts standards are contained within 'class files' which have .cls as their filename extension.

 \documentclass[options]{class}

Here, the parameter for the command specifies the .cls file to use for the document. It is recommended to put this declaration at the very beginning. The LaTeX distribution provides additional classes for other layouts, including letters and slides. It is also possible to create your own, as is often done by journal publishers, who simply provide you with their own class file, which tells LaTeX how to format your content. But we'll be happy with the standard article class for now. The parameter customizes the behavior of the document class. The options have to be separated by commas.

Example: an input file for a LaTeX document could start with the line

 \documentclass[11pt,twoside,a4paper]{article}

which instructs LaTeX to typeset the document as an article with a base font size of 11 points, and to produce a layout suitable for double sided printing on A4 paper.

Here are some document classes that can be used with LaTeX:

 article For articles in scientific journals, presentations, short reports, program documentation, invitations, ... IEEEtran For articles with the IEEE Transactions format. proc A class for proceedings based on the article class. report For longer reports containing several chapters, small books, thesis, ... book For real books. slides For slides. The class uses big sans serif letters. memoir For changing sensibly the output of the document. It is based on the book class, but you can create any kind of document with it [1] letter For writing letters. beamer For writing presentations (see LaTeX/Presentations).

The generic document classes that come with LaTeX offer some layout flexibility, which is why they have a lot of options in common. Non-generic classes (those provided by university departments or publication houses) may have different options than those shown below or no options at all. Normally, third-party classes come with their own documentation. The most common options for the generic document classes are listed in the following table:

 10pt, 11pt, 12pt Sets the size of the main font in the document. If no option is specified, 10pt is assumed. a4paper, letterpaper,... Defines the paper size. The default size is letterpaper; However, many European distributions of TeX now come pre-set for A4, not Letter, and this is also true of all distributions of pdfLaTeX. Besides that, a5paper, b5paper, executivepaper, and legalpaper can be specified. fleqn Typesets displayed formulas left-aligned instead of centered. leqno Places the numbering of formulas on the left hand side instead of the right. titlepage, notitlepage Specifies whether a new page should be started after the document title or not. The article class does not start a new page by default, while report and book do. twocolumn Instructs LaTeX to typeset the document in two columns instead of one. twoside, oneside Specifies whether double or single sided output should be generated. The classes article and report are single sided and the book class is double sided by default. Note that this option concerns the style of the document only. The option twoside does not tell the printer you use that it should actually make a two-sided printout. landscape Changes the layout of the document to print in landscape mode. openright, openany Makes chapters begin either only on right hand pages or on the next page available. This does not work with the article class, as it does not know about chapters. The report class by default starts chapters on the next page available and the book class starts them on right hand pages. draft makes LaTeX indicate hyphenation and justification problems with a small square in the right-hand margin of the problem line so they can be located quickly by a human. It also suppresses the inclusion of images and shows only a frame where they would normally occur.

For example, if you want a report to be in 12pt type on A4, but printed one-sided in draft mode, you would use:

 \documentclass[12pt,a4paper,oneside,draft]{report}

### Packages

While writing your document, you will probably find that there are some areas where basic LaTeX cannot solve your problem. If you want to include graphics, colored text or source code from a file into your document, you need to enhance the capabilities of LaTeX. Such enhancements are called packages. Some packages come with the LaTeX base distribution. Others are provided separately. Modern TeX distributions come with a large number of packages pre-installed. The command to use a package is pretty simple: :

 \usepackage[options]{package}

command, where package is the name of the package and options is a list of keywords that trigger special features in the package. For example, to use the color package, which lets you typeset in colors, you would type:

 \documentclass{report}\usepackage{color}\begin{document} ... \end{document}

You can pass several options to a package, each separated by a comma.

 \usepackage[option1,option2,option3]{''package_name''}

## The document environment

### Top matter

At the beginning of most documents there will be information about the document itself, such as the title and date, and also information about the authors, such as name, address, email etc. All of this type of information within LaTeX is collectively referred to as top matter. Although never explicitly specified (there is no command) you are likely to encounter the term within LaTeX documentation.

A simple example:

 \documentclass[11pt,a4paper]{report}\begin{document}\title{How to Structure a LaTeX Document}\author{Andrew Roberts}\date{December 2004}\maketitle\end{document}

The , , and commands are self-explanatory. You put the title, author name, and date in curly braces after the relevant command. The title and author are usually compulsory (at least if you want LaTeX to write the title automatically); if you omit the command, LaTeX uses today's date by default. You always finish the top matter with the command, which tells LaTeX that it's complete and it can typeset the title according to the information you have provided and the class (style) you are using. If you omit , the title will never be typeset.

Using this approach, you can only create a title with a fixed layout. If you want to create your title freely, see the Title Creation section. You should remember, however, that the goal of LaTeX is to leave formatting to the documentclass designer, and if you wish to submit your work to multiple publishers then you should avoid designing a custom title.

### Abstract

As most research papers have an abstract, there are predefined commands for telling LaTeX which part of the content makes up the abstract. This should appear in its logical order, therefore, after the top matter, but before the main sections of the body. This command is available for the document classes article and report, but not book.

 \documentclass{article}\begin{document}\begin{abstract} Your abstract goes here... ... \end{abstract} ... \end{document}

By default, LaTeX will use the word "Abstract" as a title for your abstract. If you want to change it into anything else, e.g. "Executive Summary", add the following line before you begin the abstract environment:

 \renewcommand{\abstractname}{Executive Summary}

### Sectioning commands

The commands for inserting sections are fairly intuitive. Of course, certain commands are appropriate to different document classes. For example, a book has chapters but an article doesn't. Here are some of the structure commands found in simple.tex.

 \chapter{Introduction} This chapter's content... \section{Structure} This section's content... \subsection{Top Matter} This subsection's content... \subsubsection{Article Information} This subsubsection's content...

Notice that you do not need to specify section numbers; LaTeX will sort that out for you. Also, for sections, you do not need to use and commands to indicate which content belongs to a given block.

LaTeX provides 7 levels of depth for defining sections (see table below). Each section in this table is a subsection of the one above it.

CommandLevelComment
-1not in letters
0only books and reports
1not in letters
2not in letters
3not in letters
4not in letters
5not in letters

 \section[Effect on staff turnover]{An analysis of the effect of the revised recruitment policies on staff turnover at divisional headquarters}

#### Section numbering

Numbering of the sections is performed automatically by LaTeX, so don't bother adding them explicitly, just insert the heading you want between the curly braces. Parts get roman numerals (Part I, Part II, etc.); chapters and sections get decimal numbering like this document, and appendices (which are just a special case of chapters, and share the same structure) are lettered (A, B, C, etc.).

You can change the depth to which section numbering occurs, so you can turn it off selectively. By default it is set to 3. If you only want parts, chapters, and sections numbered, not subsections or subsubsections etc., you can change the value of the secnumdepthcounter using the command, giving the depth level you wish. For example, if you want to change it to "1":

 \setcounter{secnumdepth}{1}

A related counter is tocdepth, which specifies what depth to take the Table of Contents to. It can be reset in exactly the same way as secnumdepth. For example:

 \subsection*{Introduction}

All the divisional commands from to have this "starred" version which can be used on special occasions for an unnumbered heading when the setting of secnumdepth would normally mean it would be numbered.

If you want the unnumbered section to be in the table of contents anyway, use package unnumberedtotoc[1]. It provides the command

which will take care of a proper header as well. and are also available. KOMA classes provide those commands by default.

If you don't want to use package unnumberedtotoc, you have to do everything by hand using and (or even ).

Note that if you use PDF bookmarks you will need to add a phantom section so that hyperlinks will lead to the correct place in the document. The command is defined in the hyperref package, and is Commonly used like this:

For chapters you will also need to clear the page (this will also correct page numbering in the ToC):

See Counters.

### Ordinary paragraphs

Paragraphs of text come after section headings. Simply type the text and leave a blank line between paragraphs. The blank line means "start a new paragraph here": it does not mean you get a blank line in the typeset output. For formatting paragraph indents and spacing between paragraphs, refer to the Paragraph Formatting section.

All auto-numbered headings get entered in the Table of Contents (ToC) automatically. You don't have to print a ToC, but if you want to, just add the command at the point where you want it printed (usually after the Abstract or Summary).

Entries for the ToC are recorded each time you process your document, and reproduced the next time you process it, so you need to re-run LaTeX one extra time to ensure that all ToC pagenumber references are correctly calculated. We've already seen how to use the optional argument to the sectioning commands to add text to the ToC which is slightly different from the one printed in the body of the document. It is also possible to add extra lines to the ToC, to force extra or unnumbered section headings to be included.

The commands and work in exactly the same way as to automatically list all your tables and figures. If you use them, they normally go after the command. The command normally shows only numbered section headings, and only down to the level defined by the tocdepth counter, but you can add extra entries with the command. For example if you use an unnumbered section heading command to start a preliminary piece of text like a Foreword or Preface, you can write:

This will format an unnumbered ToC entry for "Preface" in the "subsection" style. You can use the same mechanism to add lines to the List of Figures or List of Tables by substituting lof or lot for toc. If the hyperref package is used and the link does not point to the correct chapter, the command in combination with or can be used (see also Labels and Cross-referencing):

To change the title of the ToC, you have to paste this command in your document preamble. The List of Figures (LoF) and List of Tables (LoT) names can be changed by replacing the with for LoF and for LoT.

#### Depth

The default ToC will list headings of level 3 and above. To change how deep the table of contents displays automatically the following command can be used in the preamble:

This will make the table of contents include everything down to paragraphs. The levels are defined above on this page. Note that this solution does not permit changing the depth dynamically.

You can change the depth of specific section type, which could be useful for PDF bookmarks (if you are using the hyperref package) :


In order to further tune the display or the numbering of the table of contents, for instance if the appendix should be less detailed, you can make use of the tocvsec2 package (CTAN, doc).

## Book structure

The standard LaTeX book class follows the same layout described above with some additions. By default a book will be two-sided, i.e. left and right margins will change according to the page number parity. Furthermore current chapter and section will be printed in the header.

If you do not make use of chapters, it is barely useful to use the book class.

Additionally the class provides macros to change the formatting of some places of the document. We will give you some advice on how to use them properly.[2]

 \begin{document}\frontmatter\maketitle% Introductory chapters\chapter{Preface}% ...\mainmatter\chapter{First chapter}% ...\appendix\chapter{First Appendix}\backmatter\chapter{Last note}
• The frontmatter chapters will not be numbered. Page numbers will be printed in roman numerals. Frontmatter is not supposed to have sections, so they will be numbered because there is no chapter numbering. Check the Counters chapter for a fix.
• The mainmatter chapters works as usual. The command resets the page numbering. Page numbers will be printed in arabic numerals.
• The macro can be used to indicate that following sections or chapters are to be numbered as appendices. Appendices can be used for the article class too:
 \appendix\section{First Appendix}

Only use the macro once for all appendices.

• The backmatter behaves like the frontmatter. It has the same issue with section numbering.

As a general rule you should avoid mixing the command order. Nonetheless all commands are optional, so you might consider using only a few.

### Page order

This is one traditional page order for books.

Frontmatter
1. Half-title
2. Empty
3. Title page
4. Information (copyright notice, ISBN, etc.)
5. Dedication if any, else empty
7. List of figures (can be in the backmatter too)
8. Preface chapter
Mainmatter
1. Main topic
Appendix
1. Some subordinate chapters
Backmatter
1. Bibliography
2. Glossary / Index

## Special pages

Comprehensive papers often feature special pages at the end, like indices, glossaries and bibliographies. Since this is quite a complex topic, we will give you details in the dedicated part Special Pages.

### Bibliography

Any good research paper will have a complete list of references. LaTeX has two ways of inserting your references into a document:

• you can embed them within the document itself. It's simpler, but it can be time-consuming if you are writing several papers about similar subjects so that you often have to cite the same books.
• you can store them in an external BibTeX file and then link them via a command to your current document and use a Bibtex style to define how they appear. This way you can create a small database of the references you might use and simply link them, letting LaTeX work for you.

To learn how to add a bibliography to your document, see the Bibliography Management section.

## Notes and references

One of the immense strengths of LaTeX is its capability to cross-reference through information it places in auxiliary files. Done properly, this feature permits one to extract, insert, move and modify large and small chunks of the document around without having to manually renumber cross-references, it is all done automatically.

One of the easiest things to do is to insert a table of contents into a document simply by placing the LaTeX command \tableofcontents at the desired location in the document; see .

The first time this is LaTeX'ed the table will not appear because the information is being stored in the associated file. Subsequent LaTeX'ing will typeset the table of contents.

The package may be used to insert a Table of Contents of just the current chapter or Part in a book or report. Very useful to help map out the parts of the dissertation for a reader. See the scheme laid out in the skeleton file .

## Footnotes

Unlike most publishers, LaTeX easily handles footnotes with contemptuous ease. Just use the \footnote{some-text} command with one argument being the text of the footnote. As seen in , this will typeset a numerical flag at the location of the footnote command and will place the footnote text at the bottom of the page.

## Labels and references

Somewhat more sophisticated are references to equations and sections. First one has to label them as in \section{...} \label{sec-name} or in $$... \label{eq-name}$$ which associates a string such as '' with the number of the section, and a string such as '' with the number of the equation. See .

Having created the labels, you refer to the objects using the command as seen in . You may use the command to typeset a symbol for 'section' and 'subsection'. You must put parentheses around the equation number in its reference.

One also labels and refers to chapters, subsections, subsubsections, tables, figures, and enumerated lists.

Avoid unhelpful and easy to misinterpret phrases such as "we will do", "from the above equation" and "in the figure below": instead use precise cross-references such as "section \ref{} does", "using equation (\ref{})", and "Figure \ref{} plots", respectively.

When drafting a document, you often lose track of labels. Further, you want to read the document comfortably on screen rather than printing it. These desires are solved by two packages.

First, in the preamble will cause names of labels to also appear in a (draft) printed document for your ready reference.

Second, in the preamble will cause the document to be typeset with A5 paper size which is great for electronic reading. See and the next section where we also incorporate hypertext links.

### Cross-reference into enumerated lists

Also ensure you cross-reference to enumerated lists, instead of coding the numbers by hand. Such cross-references are best done with . For example, this package empowers you to do the following in typesetting an algorithm. \begin{enumerate}[ref=Step~\theenumi] \item\label{s1} Proceed to \ref{s2}. \item\label{s2} Go to \ref{s1}. \end{enumerate} To get typeset
1. Proceed to Step 2.
2. Go to Step 1.
In mathematics we often want to cross-reference to parts of assumptions, theorems, and so on. Do this, given that assumptions use the theorem counter, with LaTeX such as \begin{assumption} \label{ass} Assume the following. \begin{enumerate} [ref=Assumption~\thetheorem.\theenumi] \item\label{a1} This is \ref{a1}, \item\label{a2} and this is \ref{a2} \end{enumerate} \end{assumption} To get typeset something like
Assumption 3. Assume the following.
1. This is Assumption 3.1,
2. and this is Assumption 3.2

A feature of LaTeX is the ability to automatically insert hypertext links within a document:
• the command puts in a clickable link to the referred object;
• the command automatically inserts a target;
The hyperref package is wonderful, try it. To get this feature just insert the command at the end of the preamble (e.g., ).

Warning:  the files generated with and without hyperref may be incompatible, so delete the current file before using hyperref.

## Clever cross-referencing

The package enhances LaTeX's cross-referencing by determining the format of cross-references automatically according to the 'type' of cross-reference (whether to equation, section, theorem, and so on). After invoking the and packages, I recommend you include in the preamble (e.g., )

\usepackage[capitalise,nameinlink ,noabbrev]{cleveref} \crefname{equation}{}{} \crefname{enumi}{}{} All definitions must be after the above.

Then use for all your cross-references, except at the start of a sentence where you should use . The result is that each such cross-reference expands as in the following, with each cross-reference being a hyperlink.

LaTeX codeTypeset example
Figure 1
Theorem 2
Definition 3
(4)
Figures 1 and 2
Theorem 2 and Definition 3
(4) to (6)

You might ask why I do not recommend the automatic name 'equation' when cross-referencing an equation? The reason is that for best comprehension by readers, mostly we need to refer to an 'equation' by a more informative synonym such as "system (1)", "PDE (2)", "bound (3)", "approximation (4)", "inequality (5)", "transform (6)", and so on. It is not practical to code such informative synonyms automatically, we have to write them explicitly.

Similarly for an enumerated list: the default 'Item' name generated by is also functionally useless. Instead use via .

Warning: does not work with ; use instead.

## Bibliography

A bibliography is handled as a sort of enumerated list with labels.

The following list like environment

\begin{thebibliography}{99} \bibitem{bib-name1} article-description1 \bibitem{bib-name2} article-description2 ... \end{thebibliography} typesets the bibliography with the heading References and associates the labels, the strings such as '', with the description of the article or reference. See the end of .

Hint: if you want the entry "References" to appear in the table-of-contents then put the line at the start of thebibliography environment (use instead for reports or books).

Achieve citations in the text to the bibliography items by the command

\cite{bib-name} This typesets the number of the bibitem in square brackets as seen in .

Generally put a non-breaking space before the cite command as in

Mandelbrot~\cite{Mandel}...

### The actual citation has no meaning

Avoid the odius perversion, that somehow has spread throughout modern writing, of using citations in your sentences in the form "in [2]" or "by [3]". The bracketed number of a citation is just a pointer to more information. The bracketed number must not be part of the meaning of the sentence.
• Good ""
• Good ""
The meaning of your sentences must be independent of whether the bracketed citation appears or not.

## BibTeX et al.

The basic bibliography environment is fine for your first project report. However, in time you develop enough so that you want to keep one central database of all your references which you then access via the command in any document you prepare.
• First you prepare your database, say , consisting of records such as @article{Roberts94a, author = {A. J. Roberts}, journal = {Australasian Science}, month = apr, title = {The importance of beings fractal}, year = 1994, pages = 23, } or @article{Roberts95b, author = {A. J. Roberts and A. Cronin}, journal = {Physica A}, pages = {867--878}, title = {Unbiased estimation of multi-fractal dimensions of finite data sets}, volume = 233, year = 1996, } The program appears good for preparing and maintaining such a database; although I use BibDesk on a Macintosh.
• Then whenever you prepare a document, include the commands \bibliographystyle{plain} \bibliography{ajr} instead of thebibliography environment. Use as normal within the document.
• Lastly, after running LaTeX, execute the program bibtex (it will look in the file to determine what references are needed) which creates a file that later runs of LaTeX will read to form the bibliography. This sounds complicated, but it is all worth it.
There are also publicly available databases of files covering specialist areas of research compiled by interested people. For example there is one for dynamical systems.

### Some people use a Harvard style

Many people need to know how to use a Harvard style of citations. The one big advantage of Harvard style is that the citations are mostly invariant: "Smith (1987)" means the same (mostly) in each article that a reader reads; whereas "Smith [13]" means different things in different articles; and lastly, "[13]" is completely meaningless to a reader.

In LaTeX, obtain a Harvard style of citations as follows, with the same format for the data files, and very similar commands in the document.

• In the preamble put (get it from a CTAN site if your system does not have the package).
• In the place you want the bibliography put then as before but now using the AGSM bibtex style instead of the default plain style.
• Then to get the following citations use the given command
• "Roberts & Cronin (1996)" use ;
• "(Roberts & Cronin, 1996)" use ;
• this form also typesets an afterword, for example, for "(Roberts & Cronin, 1996, p.15)" use ;
• for three or more authors will typeset "Roberts et al. (1996)" which is good, but the convention is that the first time a three author work is cited the three authors ought to be explicitly given so then use to get "Roberts, Cronin & Another (1996)" the first time you site the work.
• Finally, the default style for URLs in natbib is very ugly. So in the preamble after and , include the statement
The hyperref package works with natbib and agsm.

As for the bracketed citation style, the parenthetical form is just a pointer to more information and must not contribute to the meaning of the sentence. Also avoid physically impossible statements such as ; instead use .

### Collaboration with BibTeX

In your first use of LaTeX you will probably be working on your own, in which case ignore this subsection. But as soon as you start to collaborate on writing, then come back and read this: collaboration with BibTeX is only reasonable with the following which merges from all the collaborators the relevant bib entries from their database into the common database .

• Ensure your system has the script or ---it comes with most LaTeX systems.
• Say three people are collaborating: you are Alice with collaborators Bob and Eve, and you each have separate bib files say , and , respectively. Then, in your LaTeX source, say , include a line for each collaborator of the following form, \bibliography{bibexport,alice} %\bibliography{bibexport,bob} %\bibliography{bibexport,eve}
• Execute LaTeX on the source (which records in the bibfiles to use).
• Execute (usually via a terminal application) which merges into the local file the necessary bib information from itself (first) and (second). Ignore warnings about duplicated bib entries.
• Execute to get the new file generated, and away you go as usual.
• When your collaborators want to merge in information from their personal bibfiles, and respectively, then they uncomment the bibliography line for themselves, comment out the other bibliography lines, and then proceed as above.
• One can even choose the bibliography command automatically by lines in the source such as \IfFileExists{alice.sty} {\bibliography{bibexport,alice}}{} \IfFileExists{bob.sty} {\bibliography{bibexport,bob}}{} \IfFileExists{eve.sty} {\bibliography{bibexport,eve}}{} provided each individual has a personal style file implementing their personal preferences for style!

### Gather bibliographic data via Zoterro

To find articles, one often searches the internet: use "Google Scholar" rather than just Google or other web search engine (as they are too indiscriminant).

Once found on the internet, mostly it is good to use Zoterro (a plugin to browsers) to download the article and the bibliographic information (despite occasional failure). Then a richt-click to "Export Item(s)..." saves bibliographic info in a *.bib file: edit and merge with your own database.

### BibLaTeX?

This is a new more powerful and flexible method for citations from data: to be incorporated soon.

## Divide and conquer large documents

Large documents, especially dissertations and books, can be a pain to deal with just because of their size. LaTeX gives a facility to split the source, the file, into manageable sized chunks to make editing easier and to speed typesetting by only doing that chunk of interest at any one time.
• Establish the main file, as in , of the form \documentclass{article} \begin{document} \include{frac25a} \include{frac25b} \include{frac25c} \end{document} with as many divisions as there are logical chunks in your document.
• Then put all your normal LaTeX text and commands in the corresponding files. Here I have broken the input file into:
• Typeset the main file and all appears as normal (except pagebreaks are enforced between the included files).
• To typeset only one of the chunks, say the first section, just insert the command \includeonly{frac25b} in the preamble as you see commented out in .

### Appendices

Often large documents have one or more appendices. If so just insert the command immediately before the first appendix, then use chapter and/or sectioning commands as before. The first chapter or section after will become Appendix A, the second will be Appendix B, etc.

## Summary

Cross-referencing is important in professional documents. Cross-referencing is absolutely vital in research as you must `plug' your work into the world's knowledge base, and must connect information across pages and sections within your own work. LaTeX provides incredibly easy tools to do this.